Dharma Ratna Yami by
This book was written by Maha Pandit Rahul Sanskrityan in Hindi and published in New Delhi.
Rahuljee ( https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rahul_Sankrityayan ) published https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=691609208241970&id=192018361534393 https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rahul_Sankrityayan
This is the draft version of translation in English which has to be edited by professional editor.
Dharma ratna’s (from father’s side ) grand father ratna das belong to capital Kathmandu and was a wealthy business man. He was a royal business man under the regime of Rana Chandra smasher for 29 years. He was a supplier of all the necessary goods for Chandra Samshere. In this business there used to be profit as well as loss, however to become a royal business man used to earn great respect in the society. Once he bought big volume of Mischri(Sugar crystals?) and over which he had six times profit. After Jealous people around informed Chandra Samshere scolded him. He explained to him that he had great loss in other goods too. Ratna das was a true honest man (ATMA NivaNi). he had a nature not to bow down to low inhuman level before the Rana tyrant in front whom every body had to succumb to any low level treatment. He was considered proud in the eyes of other people. Other people regularly fed wrong information about Ratna Das and everything turned wrong in front of Chandra Samshere. Chandra smasher was a cruel tyrant ruler. He was excellent in not directly attacking and used to use crude indirect method in finishing people. Once Ratna Das had to bear a loss of sixty thousand. Charda Samsher immediately order him to pay the money. Ratna das borrowed money from his daughter in law’s father (SAMDHI ) and gave it to and left government contract. Chandra Shamshere.
After that he initiated new type of business and invested fifteen thousand to open shoe factory. The demand for his products increased and his business flourished. Mean while Chandra Samshere had engaged other business man to supply goods in the palace and his performance was poor. Chandra Samshere while moving around in the town came back and took Ratna Das in the palace. He promised to award him the contract.
However (1922) before dying had to bear miserable days ahead. His son was married to the daughter of Dhalsiko business man, however can any business man be true friends? The Dhalsoko Sahu started demanding for returning the loan Ratna Das had taken and because he couldn’t return his house was locked. The fighting continued between (Ratna Das’s son) Mandas and his father in law continued for long time.. This childhood incidence is still stamped (uneased) even now (1953) in the mind of Dharma Ratna. Ratna Das didn’t have to bear the pain for long because within two months after that death took him away. Four sons of Ratna Das, Asha Ratna, Bhawani Ratna, Man Das and Harkha Das then turned into the state of beggars? Till then Ratna Das was holding business centre in Tibet(Lhasa) and that business could have sustained he and his family. However his eldest son Asha Ratna was drugged and whole business went down??. To come to such stage the second son was also accountable. He had kept second wife and was over spending money. He had expected help from his first wife (Bhawani Ratna’s wife ). Poor lady was staying at maternal house looking after two sons. Even after turning to the road side beggar Bhawani Ratna had good presence of mind making profit. He started shop supplying rice and daal however he didn’t have the skill of making profit and could not make profit. After him the remaining two younger brothers Mandas and Harkha Das finding no use staying in Nepal left for Tibet. Bhawanui Ratna went to other place to try out for better luck. He approached his neglected wife to give gim her ornaments, however she doubted that it would be handed over to rakhute and refused the request. Through difficult means Bhawani Ratna reached Kalingpong. Started a business of cycle. After failing in this business he shifted to Darjeeling and opened shop of caps and cycle. There also luck didn’t favor him. During that time he got introduced to big volume business man Dharma Man Sahu. He sent Bhawani Ratna to work in his business centre at Pharijong. Bhawani Ratna was careless in spending however he was honest and very hardworking. After short duration only the owner of the business man promoted him as a chief in charge of the business. There he worked for eleven years till A.D. 1934.
Back in Nepal Dharma Ratna was staying with his mother. The economic situation in the house was bad, he learned the first education through the pains of lack of resources in the house. At the age of eight being the grand son of the grand father Sahu the business man had admitted him for some period he kept with Babu Kaji and was admitted in government Sanskrit pathsala however that education failed to go ahead beyond akchher pathsala.
Although Dharma Ratna’s family was economically in grave situation, being in good cultured community they used to also come across some relatives offering them help. His own grand mother was already dead, however step grand mother had special sympathy towards Dharma Ratna and his mother. She kept Dharma Ratna with her. Her nephews started teaching him. At last how long can she go on continuing looking after son and the mother. She had thought that he would earn some saving for her https://www.timilayamithapa.com/blogs/view/61.html too. And she got him employed at one Tamrakar to work for Khalati Chalune. The grand son of such a rich business man now worked as Khalache for three years. However after the war between Udas and Bajracharya he lost this job too because the Tamrakar was on one side and he was with the opposition side. He once again jobless.
Seeing him wasting time uselessly Laxmi Prasad Khardar kept him with him working at 3 Rupees per month. There he worked for a year making shoes. During that period he met one man who used to work at his grand father’s place. After listening to the pathetic story of Dharma Ratna Yami he offered to out source lump sum business of shoe making to Dharma Ratna. Dharma Ratna made a profit of Rs.35 in the first month itself. Now his shoe making business started flourishing. After cutting his routine expenditure he started handing over Rupees 60/ per month. Even after doing this over the year the saving was Rupees 155/- like this the life of Dharma Ratna was pulling along. During the same time Nepali shoe with Japanese material started capturing the market. The hand made Nepali expensive shoe became difficult to push in the market. Who will purchase?? With the result Dharma Ratna’s business was closed down and once again he became penniless again at the age of seventeen. The grand mother tried to get him married however Dharma Ratna made wise decision by rejecting the plan. After closing down the shoe making business with the help of one friend he worked as agent for six months. His youngest uncle Harkha Das was working as a writer at Mohan Samshere. How would his uncle help him when Dharma Ratna was not educated. He instead suggested him to go to Lhasa and be with his own father however his mother and grand mother was against this idea. Every one’s concern was how would the father behave with him . No one knows? The dangerous road of Lhasa could bring risk for the son too. Since Dharma Ratna was born in a community who travelled to foreign land to do business courage and business was built in their blood. One day he stole one hundred and twenty one rupees , the amount he himself had made her save, and ran away.
He roamed around for a month and the half. What ever money he had was also consumed. He couldn’t mange to get work. He was about the get admitted in missionary industrial school instead Tri Ratna man sahu who was a son of Dharma Man Sahu , handed over Rupees 5000 as a travel cost to reach Lhasa and work there.
When I traveled to Tibet the second time Dharma Ratna was making the first trip to Tibet. Within six seven months he became fluent in Tibetan language. For him it was important to learn this language and it was easy for him to learn too because there was not alternative means of communication except this language. After few days the owner of the business Sahu employed him at his Kothi.
Now Dharma Ratna became a staff of Chhusinsa (Dharma Man’s kothi). He started living in Ferry and some time in Lhasa. Same year 1934 the time was during winter season. For Nepalese people sending money for procuring goods for Tibet and bringing to Tibet used to be difficult job. It used to take five six days to reach Indian postal centre at Gyanchi and to have Akashbani office for business community must be really a lucky scenario. They used to send money and valuable goods via postal office at gyachi to Calcutta or via reach Kothi of Kalingpong. Dharma Ratna walked towards Gyanchi one Lakh cash, gold worth of 35 thousand and Kasturi worth of 25 thousand. Sahu’s khacchar Chadhne Nokar Sonamu-Gyyan-je’s blood thirsty nature was known to the writer. When he had raised sword. After reaching the rest centre at Namche he went and stayed at the place where Newars come and stay. Do you think Sonam was a servant ! He used to think himself as a Badsaha (king) with a crown. He scolded Dharma Ratna saying “ why are you staying here?” besides beating him with mukka he even brought out sword. Dharma Ratna ran upstair and took shelter on top of the roof. People though ghost had entered inside the body of Sonam and started treating him to remove ghost from his body. The land lord told Dharma Ratna that it is nothing but the ghost in his body, now he is O K and suggested him to depart. However how will Dharma Ratna believe that the Bhoot (ghosht) Sonam will not return during three day’s journey. Dharma Ratna completed the journey holding the pistol in front of Sonam.
From 1933 Dharma Ratna was also a staff of chhusinsa. One time chhusinsa used to be one of the biggest Kothi in Tibet now the business started going down. Dharma Man Sahu was a very religious and a person who sends on offerings. Because of his old age he now didn’t have capacity to think from long distances. In the name of Dan Punya (offering ? ) he took out Rupees 75 thousand and spent over making Chaityas and Vihars in Nepal. At Laddakha where branch was opened with the negligence of workers there was a loss of Rs. 25 – 30 Thousand. The business was also not like before and the salary of the workers could not be paid. Dharma Ratna suggested all his supporters to go on strike and he himself also stopped working. While staying at Lhasa he used to visit Chinese office too and he had learned to communicate with them in Chinese. After one week of strike negotiation took place between the owner and the workers. The food and clothing were already been seen regularly supplied and there was irregularities the amount of salary only. Now the salary of Dharma Ratna’s father Eight hundred, Dhirendra Bajra’s five hundred and remaining staff’s Three Hundreds yearly conformed. The father of Dharma Ratna was not happy with his son for his behavior towards Sahu. He was a old cultured honest man and used to honor Sahu more than his own life. After 6 or 7 months he received messages of passed away of his wife. He was carrying this worry in his mind. He started repenting over the wrong behaviour over his wife after he received a message about her death. He suffered from insomnia and could not sleep for two three days. Dharma Ratna tried his best to cool down the feelings of father and confirmed about departing the place after getting money. After this confirmation about plan Dharma Ratna had gone out during day time to buy wheat floor. After receiving the message he came running home. At 1 PM at day time Mahila Sahu (Bhawani Ratna) shot himself with French pistol dark side corner of the down stair room.His body had already become cold when the son reached there.
The people around the master tried to investigate. People were encouraging Dharma Ratna the staffs of the Nepalese embassy also tried to investigate master however Dharma Ratna’s answer was only one “ I don’t want to put the master into difficulty because of the death of the father. Mahila Sahu had left three letters under the Sanduk . The letter written to the encourage ambassador of Nepal was as follows: “ I am committing suicide according to my own wish. I licked the dust of diamond and drank cooked oil after pouring opium however I could not die. Now I am risking my life by shooting with the bullets of pistol by shooting myself. In this action no one is guilty”. To the letter to brother and son he said he is sorry ?? himself saying he couldn’t do any thing for them because of his own Nalayeki.
Dharma Ratna was not like other Nepalese who were satisfied after learning to speak Tibetan language. He was trying to establish himself more there. This is because he was in love with one Tibetan girl. She also loved him however she was hesitant to own him because of the long typical traditional cultural gap between Tibetan and Nepali community. Dharma Ratna wrote many poems and articles to his Tibetan lover in Tibetan language then. During his journey toward serving second term in Nepal he wrote an epic called “Tibet ko jawaf” (Sandey Ya Lisa) . Now Dharma Ratna’s brain had turned into Yddha Buddha. He knew – one’s son if becomes Nepali Khachara whole life will be remain disgraceful, he will not get any property from father and if daughter is born will be the property of Tibet why would a Tibetan girl give heart to Nepali boy?
Before this incidence Dharma Ratna had faced another incidence which changed the course of life. Among the revolutionaries at Chat Gaun (India) one Aanadananda Paribrjak who had fled from his country and had landed in Tibet after roaming around other areas. Dharma Ratna got an opportunity to interact with him. Paribrajak had managed to transform the thinking of Dharma Ratna to make him realize the importance of understanding the disgrace of working as coolies and police and for this there is a need of overthrowing the Rana regime in Nepal and become free country. After this fruitful relationship Dharma Ratna started hunting for books on politics written in Hindi and started reading them. What every Hindi news papers and books he could search there , find them and read them. In the beginning he had tough time understanding Hindi however he mastered Hindi because he in his mind had strong passion to know and collect information.
Due to the freedom of thought of Dharma Ratna one more color was also seen. He was already in contact with intellectual class of Tibetans, he was also in close contact and built good relation with Chinese officers. He was also in close relation with Tibetan Muslims also and used to take deep interest and listen to details of Muslim religion from them. Nepalese Buddhists were Hindus and physically discriminated Muslims. However Machala (name given to Dharma Ratna by Tibetans) never discriminated Muslims. They had believed that Machala had become like Muslims only. However without marrying Muslim girl how can any one believe like this Hunu? One day two Baya Buddha Muslims arrived. They enquired “ you understand all religion. Which religion is best according to your analysis?”. Machala told them “ I like the Bhaichara of Muslims. After keeping both hands in one place both Bayo Bhuddhas said” if that is the case why don’t you take the name of Allah Talla” Dharma Ratna would not side with any one and those two got disappointed and went back.
In the year 1937- 38 Dharma Ratna returned home with his eight hundred and twenty five rupees of father with total of Rs. 33 hundred in hand. He opened shop by investing Three Thousand. However within few days every thing was over and the house owner kicked him out after issuing notice. From this Machala felt Bairagya (depression ?) . He left the city taking Ten Ruprees and half Tola gold. After he reached out of valley( ? ) he colored his Dhoti and he disguised himself as Jogi. From there he moved towards Betrabati. The road was very difficult. It was dangerous rainy season. Before reaching that place on the way he witnessed land slide most of the parts of the village was buried. So many things were washed away along with the river. However Dharma Ratna was least bothered about his risky life. He reached Menchen Gumba and there he stayed for one and half month for getting help he started learning skills. He also taught children of the neighborhood. However he was not satisfied and returned to Kathmandu. By then he had made up his mind to join politics.
Dharma Ratna started working towards getting into full swing politics along with Shukra Raj Shastri, Murli Dhar Sharma, Kedar Man Bethit and Ganga Lal. Time had already come to bring awareness program while conducting program of telling Puran to the public (indirectly). Dharma Ratna felt the need to establish link with the outside the country. Reaching Palpa he collected youth and tried to train them in politics. During that time he met Tek Bahadur Malla who was ex- officer who was sacked from intelligence department. He used to say Rana regime as his great enemy. He gave some money to Dharma Ratna to depart for Patna immediately to meet Ram Bikchhe Benu Puri.
Dharma Ratna stayed in Saranath, India for few days. That time only Sukra Raj Shastri was arrested. Murli Dhar came all the way to Saranath to meet him. Both of them sat together to work out plan. In order to speed up protest against Rana regime they made plan to meet Pandit Jwaharalal Nehru. One letter highlighting on miserable state of Nepalese people was handed over through the hand of Dharma Ratna Yami and expressed to wish talk to tell the details. Nehru took them to Ananda Bhavan (Prayag). Dharma Ratna told him all the details. Nehru advised him saying “do something”. However it was impossible to do any thing in front of Rana Sahi Jagatdambe. While expressing the views after getting Jhapad from Nehru and said “ if we had the capacity to do any thing we won’t have come all the way to seek help from you”.
After this Dharma Ratna Yami reached Patna. There he met Benipuri the editor of “Janata” paper. He encouraged him and asked him to collect ten twenty people and attend Tripuri Congress Sava (1939). Dharma Ratna gave Baktabya (interview?) in news paper saying ” Nepalese youth are not silent. We ourselves are visiting Tripura...”. However after going to Calcutta and requesting the Nepalese youth for Tripura trip non of them agreed for the fear of being punished by Rana regime. From there he reached Kalingpong. He went around delivering public speeches for getting more members for party (Sangathan) for three months. Politics made him good speaker. That time 20 numbers of youth were ready to work for Praja Parishad. However he could not collect sufficient number of people to go for Tripuri Gyan Sava. Those who were ready to go Dharma Ratna could not manage the journey expenses for them. Dharma Ratna replied Benpuri with sad and discouraged feeling.
Hundred years ago after staging all kinds of blood bath Janga Bahadur took the executive power of the nation which would last for generations from his future descendents by snatching political power of king. However the monarch tolerated this tyrant Rana rule without complaining. His and his supports wished that power would return back to king one day. The king Tribhuvan serving house arrest under Rana rule secretly wished for total freedom for citizens. In order to meet the total running expenditure the king used to get less than Rs. One lakh only. After getting confirmation about the revolt against Rana rulers by Praja Parishad, the king started sponsoring the movement. For political parties there will be shortage of fund. The marginalized groups will be more honest and dedicated and will be in support. However if the members of the party get money easily members will become greedy and party becomes functionless. Finally the party splited and the fund from king also stopped. Before all this happened six months before there was secret program against Ranas at Narayanhity (Raj mahal) – making the queen pretend sick with glands and keep flashing news repeatedly about the seriousness of the disease and one day informing about the final days of the queen Priminister (PM) was called. Plan was to make him smell chloroform and making him faint or shoot him with gun shots and announce the return of full power of king Tribhuvan. However the palace surrounded by so many secret agents of PM how could they keep the information secret for six months. When PM Yuddha Samshere was called he didn’t comply the request sent. After two hours the son of PM Bahadur Samshere appeared and scolded king Tribhuvan. And this unnatural plot got diffused. After few days Sukra Raj Shastri in the history of Nepal for the first time delivered public speechhajan in which Ganga Lal also participated in the program. In this aparaddh ( plot?? ) both Shastri and Ganga Lal got arrested. However Ganga Lal was released after the effort of his father making him sign pardoning the act. Gangalal was not at all agreeing for this forgiveness . That is why he became very sad. During this time only Dharma Ratna arranged the marriage of his one and only one brother. During this ceremony a secret function was organized in which a revolutionary song was sung.....this song was targeted towards waking up the weak public. Gangal Lal misunderstood the song thinking that it was targeted towards him. He suddenly stood up and he expressed his feelings through slopk: “ neta netadi sabale marun sajha sabaiko Hu bir Nepalka Bir Putra.....Desh ka nimti chita ma pugna tayar...that time every one got the shock out of lives when the youth Gangalal with red face left the place the program got canceled. Five days after that sangeet program , with the help of arms Rana Sahi milichhed garnrne (?? ) one strict parcha came out. Dharma Ratna had invested more than 700 Rupees on opening of a soap shop . That shop had become a centre of meeting point of youth forces and students. Teg Bahadur after being sacked from intelligence department had been helping Dharma Ratna from all angles. Same person had once again been reinstated in his old post. In Singh Darbar (in PM’s Mahal) in front of meeting of officers of intelligence department. This Parcha Baji work was organized by soap shop owner, he should be bribed and split the force. Those officers used to be taken as also dangerous in the minds of Ranas. That is why each of them had their own personal intelligence personnel. When the elder son Bahadur Samshere of PM replied saying that Praja Parishad wants to eliminate your father he replied” why they are trying to take the life of my old father? Real power lies in the descendents of Chandra Samshere. Why won’t they be after them? “
Sukra Raj Shastri’s brother went to become friend of Ranas. From him only information about Praja Parishad got leaked out. There was a meeting among strong representatives of Ranas, Thapas and Basnets. Grand sons of Yuddha Samshere said “ give us order only, we will engage and RAHAYE ALOKAN ?? involved people”, Every day people heard that the old Yyuddha Samshere is very afraid. He agreed what has been said by them. Murli Dhar was working as leader of Praja Parishad by staying in Banaras. Under some secret pretext he was called at Bhimfedi, was chained and put him in jail. After that he was threatened, made to feel scared and offered bribe also . He turned out to be weak and he gave name list of 88 people. The Vijaya Dashami chard (festival) was over by then. After few days police forces suddenly stormed into all the localities and arrested people. By mistake the name of Dharma Ratna was written as wrong and was written as Jyoti Ratna Tladhar and Jyoti Ratna was arrested instead. Dharma Ratna stayed coolly at home. He tried to run away and while returning he was arrested. Whatever happened to jail and khor similar things happened to others too. Among the arrested Dharma Ratna’s number was 51. All people were kept separately with separate aath pariya security forces. In order to torture then arrangement was made at school at night. One by one prisoners were taken one at a time .
Dharma Ratna was told “ you had not opened soap shop in true sense , you had opened that shop as a broad casting station for Praja Parishad”. Dharma Ratna had already come to know that Murli Dhar had already leaked out every thing to Ranas by then. Dharma Ratna’s blood was boiling because having cheated by Murli Dhar. Murli Dhar was brought to make enquiries and told “ please take Murli Dhar away and then I will agree to reply bayan (questions?”. After Murli Dhar was sent away the officers asked “ whatever have you done and heard write every thing down”. “ if that is so” Dharma Ratna said “ then I will write every thing myself” . Officers became very happy. They brought paper, ink and pen. Dharma Ratna had to write whatever he did, whatever he had heard all that he had to write. That is why he poured out all the events of his life journey except his political activities. Officers became happy without reading that paper. Next day after reading the details Colonel became very angry like fire ball. He arrived and started scolding Dharma Ratna. Dharma Ratna acted as a big sufferer from poor Newar family begging “ I am a son of a poor Newar family. I was filling my stomach by opening a soap shop. You ordered me to write whatever I had done and heard and I wrote all that. “
Like for others arrangement was made to electrocute Dharma Ratna. Belt and bamboo rod was kept in front they tried to bribe him too. To scare and set Rajbandis ( Prisoners) in right track Ranas had learnt from British Kala (art) there is no need to tell that. Dharma Ratna was tortured for fifteen days, he was already so thin and had fallen ill too then, he was so worried that he might die from that physical torture. Still they can’t release without physical torture. Dharma Ratna said “ OK I will prepare details all by tomorrow”. Dharma Ratna brain stormed the whole night and decided to write. Next day he told them “ whatever I had to say either I will say in front of PM or else I will say in front of general Nara Samasher. After collecting other two generals when Nara Samshere was ready Dharma Ratna requested them to send away Murli Dhar and other officers from there. In front of three generals Dharma Ratna said “ to make hand to mouth meet I was working in Lhasa. I met Murli Dhar in Saranath, India. He told me that Ranas are sucking blood from our flesh and bones. They are ruining lives of our young daughters also. After brain washing me for several days by him my mind started transforming. And this affected my brain. He made arrangement for me to meet Nehru and made me hand over the letter to him. I was only a toy (tool?) in front of him”. Ranas heard bad things about Murli through Dharma Ratna and hence he could make them rethink about Murli Dhar.
All interrogations with prisoners were over. All four genrals sat down together to initiate meeting for decision making..
The reports of the decision used to be delivered by police officers to the required places. For every obedient police officers who blindly believes with closing eyes this was a new change. This means for tyrant Ranas who didn’t have (Shadayentra) plot earlier there seems to be now risk of being taken up another powerful force evolving. That was citizens and their mokchhya (freedom?) . On the other side Tanka Prasad was arrested through tricky method, however, he was found talking and informing Ranas using sweet words. After listening to him Raj prisoner’s got more encouraged. Police officers were already informed that Parbatiyas should be finished with the united forces of Brahmins and Newars. Now rajbandies (prisoners ) also convinced them how Ranas were exploiting them by keeping them hungry by offering only 11 rupees. The eyes of police officers started opening, among thirty forty police officers information reached only one two hundred.
Dharma Ratna got double convinced in this meeting that Murli Dhar had passed on all secret critical information.
Bahadur Samshere threatened Dharma Ratna saying “you have hidden critical information”. After listening to this he told Teg Bahadur Malla had said the handful of Ranas can easily be eliminated if all of us are united. Bahadur Samshere became black and blue with anger and got Teg Bahadur arrested and released him the next day. However jasus has capacity to go and behave so low level, one needs to take help from the same person too. Keshar Samshere said ” I heard that you have good relation with Rahuljee”
Dharma Ratna replied ” he is my Buddhist teacher” After listening to this reply Padma Samshere replied “ both of these are Badmas”.
After a week in the evening Kedar Man “Byathit” (poet), Chandra Maskey, Purna Narayan Subba, Chitta Dhar (poet) and Dharma Ratna were called and taken away. Four chains were used for each. It has been a month they had been arrested.
Meeting took place among commanding generals. King with three sons had also been brought. After two three days meeting was called calling representatives from Guru Purohits, officers, business men and professors. In front of Bhai Bharadars forty chained prisoners were presented in that meeting place. Juddha Samshere had come in vehicle. That day he had to present baktabya ( Decisions . For him only king and three sons had to be presented. Juddha Samshare had Hukka Ko nail for smoking. He read out what he had written in one page paper saying ” you all have listened to of these people. They were engaged in planning to stage blood bath in Narayenhiti by killing all Ranas. Insects tried to break diamonds. Sukra Raj reached Gandhi to inform complaints against us. Without taking the permission from government he went to Gandhi and “Brahma Sutra he had translated Malbijayee ‘s property had been taken- this was his problem.Juddha Samshere continued reading “ Murli Dhar, Kedar Man Byathit, Dharma Ratna etc had gone to cry in front of Nehru, who is a very low level socialist” after that for Rajdrohi Danda Manu and Yagyabalki Slok Udadhrit Gare which was very (Kathor) hard. After showing softness “ Dharma Shastra says this according to time and situation flexibility is needed” then advice was asked from king saying “what should be done”.
King replied saying “moderate and soft”. After hearing this from king grinding his teeth with anger, flexing arm muscles Juddha Samshere shouted in madness tone and said “give them hardest penalty” when Guru Purohits were asked for their views they replied “ Shastrotak penalty should be given” then he turned towards officers and asked them their version. Their Dhamala replied their decision saying “capital punishment (death sentence)”. Abhiyukta all were silent. Shukra Raj tried to request for him to give opportunity to speak. Without allowing him to speak Juddha Samshere said “ hard punishment should be given”. After putting hukka ko nail he drove away in his vehicle.
After half an hour Padma Samshere, Mohan Samshere, Keshar Samshere, Ananda Samshere, Shankar samshere, Nara Samshere, officers from royal court Ratna Kaji came to read out faisala ( decision) . The faisala kagaj (decision paper ) was in the hands of Ratna Kaji, however others read out . The punishment were as follows:
1) Shukra Raj Shastri, Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Dashrath Chandra, Subba Purna Narayan and Ganga Lal – death sentence with property confiscation
2) Tank Prasad, Ram Hari Sharma - Mudi Damal, life long prison term with property confiscation
3) Fatte Bahadur, Chinya Lal, Ganesh Man, Hari Krishna Shrestha, Puskar Nath Upreti, Chuda Prasad, compounder Chandra Man, Govinda Prasad, Murli Dhar (desh drohi, janata drohi) and Bal Bahadur Pandey (au boj) – life prison term, property confiscation,
4) Jeev Raj Sharma, Dharma Ratna, Kedar Man “byathit’ and Chandra Man Maskey – 18 years prison sentence, property confiscation.
5) Siddhi charan, Dhruba Nath Dune, Ram Das Laptan, Ganesh Raj, Katak Bahadur Nakarmi and Marich Man – 12 years prison sentence, property confiscate.
6) Chatta Dhar, Purna Bahadur M.A. and Fanindra Hamal – 6 years prison sentence
7) Khardar Bhupal Singh, Byasjee Sharma, Jyoti Prasad – three years prison sentence.
Rana bansi parichhit Nara Singh was thrown out of the country and decision was also made to award him an allowance of one Rupees per month. After the hearing of death sentence were announced rest of the prisoners were locked in prison.
It was important to Pighnu and Dhun??. In the Ranas and her nagari there was even more chances?? Sukra Raj Sastri had to climb death gallow because of this reason. Similarly in this dhun pidhi Jyoti Prasad was also arrested. His work was simply chanting “hare ram! hare ram!” and publicize hari kirtan. Jyoti Prasad managed to have access to sword and tried cutting his neck. Fortunately the injury was not severe and he recovered. He was taken to military hospital. Other prisoners were shifted to Bhadra Gol jail. Sukra Raj was hanged in one tree and executed awarding death sentence. Dharma Bhakta was also killed by hanging in other tree. Dashrath Chand and Ganga Lal were shot dead in Bhacha Khushi. They were taking subba Purna Narayan ??? for hanging. His death sentence was reviewed by Padma Samshere and later converted to 18 years of jail terms with property confiscation. The dead bodies were made to rot in the trees with the idea of making public terrified & frightened. Instead those spots turned into worshiping centers. Because of that the tree was cut and roots of the tree were removed where Dharma Bhakta was hanged. After careful observation remains could be seen on the spot. Unfortunately till now there is no sign signifying that memory. Sitting near by when I asked people
selling in the foot path they showed me that spot when I made enquiry. The tree where Sukra Raj Sastri was hanged still exist. Although there were no information about that incidence around that tree I could see “red tika and fowers” offered in that tree spot by people.
Thirty three Rajbandis were kept in Bhadragol jail(central jail). Among them was a word called according to rana regime court word called “desh drohi, janata drohi” Muralidjar Sharma was also there. They were all kept in four rooms. Tanka Prasad being Brahmins their lives were saved.For Ram Hari “ mudi damal” which was except for life sentence after six seven he was taken for Mundan” how he had already shaved his head. Damal was supposedly the symbol of barbar rule, that is why stamping both sides of cheeks were not done only red lines was drawn for both of them. With the order of raj guru he was demoted from Brahman caste to lower cast called Matwal requiring Rupees Forteen during marriage.
Other revolutionaries who used to stay in one area , who lacked discipline, principle or BAAD started fighting. First discrimination among Newars and Brahmins started however how could that issue be easily resolved? Among the Newars to conflict among shresthas and others started and finally conflict between BAAGAA SESYO (ardha Shrestha ) and chhaga sesyo (purna shrestha) started. one day they even physical violence even took place among them. After that they calmed down.
Among Newars were Chitta Dhar, Dharma Ratna, Chandra Man Dangol, Marich man Katakman Nakarmi were different and were Buddhists. They all said we do not believe in discrimination while eating. We stay with who ever allows us to eat together.
Some Newar gave used (JUTHO) food to mad Brahmin. On this sensitive issue Brahmins got opportunity to fight. This continued for six seven months. In between cell (kal kathori) was kept ready. The fighting also cooled down. Now the attention of prisoners were diverted towards studies. Prisoners were only allowed the access to cultural and religious materials. Dharma Ratna was almost access less from education. During the period of 1940 to 1945 he got an opportunity to lead a life of student and he used that grand opportunity to the best. Papers and pens were banned from using. However those materials used to reach through secret channel. Poets and writer used to used to write Rachanas in blank spaces in the pages of religious books available. For the prisoners one Rupees used to be provided for buying one chhatak rice, one bundle wood, salt, oil and spice. Every six months clothes of the nine hat ( yards) and one and half hat (yards)with used to be given to each one. People could receive clothes from home too if they wished.
Dharma Ratna and others started paying that one rupees per day received from prison from administration as tuition fee to Murli Dhar Sharma. He used to teach Sanskrit grantha. Youth Purna Bahadur M. A. was most educated in English. Being a simple and principle centered youth he started couching his friends Economics, Geography, Mathematics, English etc. Dharma Ratna tried learning painting from Chandra Man Maskey. Siddhi Charan tried to create him poems . Maha Kabi Chtta Dhar besides teaching wrote Maha Kabya “Sugat Saurob” in Newari language. Dharma Ratna too wrote in blank spaces of the available books , a Maha Kabya named “Aarhat Nanda’ like ashgho’s amar criti “saundrananda”. In jail discussion forum on literature, SAMASYA PURTI CHALTHE, elaborate discussion on politics and other issues used to take place. This place lacked sufficient space. There was a need to add more ingredients like green vegetables and they used to grow them there. This one year was spent (1940) in that Kalkothari. Seventeen years old Bal Bahadur Pandey was also there among the team. He developed abnormal behavior because of deranged brain and died after eleven months. He was from Gurju khandan family. Doctor asked him about his wishes and he replied saying “ please bring pistol so that I can shoot Mohan Samshere”. The abnormal behavior of Balbahadur also affected the mental state of other inmates who were leading isolated lives.
In 1941 some inmates sarted planning to escape from the prison. People from tanka Prasad group used to be against this idea, youth were for this plan. After taking the confidence of two sweepers from jail they started breaking open the bricks of compound wall. Every night bricks of wall used to be taken out and replaced with mud. The chains were also loosed to making them easy to open. People were ready to escape at 1.00 am, however, the security forces started screaming after they discovered every thing. One sweeper was badly beaten up with bad injury and he died after six months. Prisoners then refused to take out brick from compound wall.
After this failrure of plan to escape Dharma Ratna and his friends became busy in learning and teaching.
Khadka Man Singh charged with being involved in “prachanda gorkhadal” was kept in that cell from Bhim Smasher time. After three four months of arrival of new Raj bandis in Bhadra golel jail he was also shifted there. His strictness became worst and worked as water in fire. , however the plan to escape was resumed after one and half year in 1943-1944. Ganesh Man Singh was the leader in this escape plan. Leaving behind the idea of taking out the bricks of compound wall, they had better plan to fix ankush (hook) on the other side of the wall, use rope to climb and escape. To fix ankush (hook) was not easy work. After six months of trying they managed to fix the hook(ankush). Ganesh Man managed to use rope and managed to jump down into other side of the wall. Chandra man compounder having heavier body weight fell down and guards saw him. They laughed at his reply saying “ I could not escape” when he was interrogated. It was at 1 am. Guards lost three hours. At 4 AM he was asked “ were you alone or there was some one else with you?” Chandra Man replied ‘ “ I was all alone”. The guards also discovered the hook. By then four hours had already passed. The compounder was shifted to Singh Darwar. The security forces wasted time moving at different places. Ganesh man Singh in disguise as butcher went to Butwal in the pretext of buying buffalos and became safe after crossing the border at Nautanwa.
World war II was over by then. How can Nepal escape changes when there was change in global political scenario. Rana regime accordingly had also faced discouraging scenario looking at the future of of their regime. Padma Samshere who was soft natured, flexible and DABBU was becoming PM. After five years one day before Indra Jatra B.S. the political prisoners were released after signing legal commitment except Ram Hari, Govinda Prasad, Chuda Prasad, Khadga Man Singh and Chandra Man Dangol. According to that contract they had to report to the custody every month and they were barred from moving out of the valley with written permit from the regime.
After the release of Dharma Ratna the step grand mother started looking out for a suitable bride for him. After a month Dharma Ratna got opportunity to look at a girl wearing spectacles. She was a daughter of Lhasa (Tibet) merchant Heera Kaji. People had told her. She happened to be know the person regarding proposal for marriage with her. Dharma Ratna wrote a letter to her saying “ You will suffer throughout the life with a person who is politically engage, who owns no property” . We didn’t get satisfied writing like this and we decided to meet face to face one day and open up mind fully. She asked me “ if you were a bad person why would you be active in politics?”. “ Yes those days to get politically engaged meant imprisonment, facing firing squad and property confiscation”. Her father had no objection however her step mother was not giving permission. One day both of them ran away from their respective houses and got married. However they couldn’t complete one month only when Dharma Ratna had to leave her behind and reached Calcutta. There he met Ganesh Man Singh and other Nepalese political activists. He returned to Nepal after a month.
Political atmosphere again started getting tensed. Mana Mohan staged a mass protest engaging the laborers of jute factory of Biratnagar. British had already left India in 1947. There was an instruction from political national leaders of Nepal. After intensive exchanges of views large numbers of people from various localities came to mutual agreement to organize a celebration of independence day of india 1947 decorating the stage with photographs of Gandhi and other leaders under the SABHAPati (program coordinator) of Heera Devi Yami. Heera devi those days was running a school. She arrived at the stage of the program with 35 numbers of students. During the procession there was no shouting of political agendas. Every members of the procession were chanting religious words like “ hare ram” and “tare mam”. Then the cononel army commander of Rana regime asked people to close the program and threatened the crowd, arrested Heera Devi with six months old child in her lap and sent to jail. Her husband and nine others were also arrested on that day. Even in Patan Tulsi Mehar had led procession consisting of 45 activists and were also arrested while celebrating independence day of India. Similarly nine people were arrested from Bhat Gaun. All these people were political prisoners who had no chance to escape the prison. In that custody the place was filled with BUGS, UPIYAs. While raining the water used to get filled under the bed. Right after ten foot steps away used to be toilet. That place was not only meant for prisoners, they used to also keep arrested cows and buffalos “Kanji house” too. In such inhuman condition, male, female and children were locked for ten days. The prisoners had to launch hunger strike to protest against such poor condition of the cell.
Heera Devi Yami ( http://www.dharmaheera.com/all-stories ) and couple of other people were released. Remaining people were locked in that condition in that cell. After continued protests they were later shifted to better place. Dharma Ratna suffered from (GANTHOs) in the bone joints , had to be operated in hospital and had to continue staying in the prison for one and half months. After that he was shifted to same jail. during the six months imprisonment he got an opportunity to understand details about socialism and SAMYEBAD. There only Lulsi Lal Amatya landed. During that time only Dharma Ratna completed writing “JAGAT JYOTI” in Newari language covering the complete life story of Buddha.
During that period nationalist leaders were engaged in inner circle leadership conflicts and infighting for grabbing the key posts within the political parties. Koirala and Regmi both are claiming to be leader within congress. Dharma Ratna wanted to patch them up and bring them into reunion. He didn’t have a penny to travel to India then. He chipped out loan of fifty Rupees by keeping an idol of Buddha as a collateral in exchange of loan to reach Banaras. He tried his level best to sort out relation between two leaders. In this context he even met the Indian socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia of India to sort out the the conflict between two leaders. Bisweswar Koirala had better education. Ganesh Man, Surya Bahadur and Dharma Ratna together had mutual talk and drew out the following conditions:
1) to continue the party leadership of Dilli Raman Regmi till the election result which is due soon
2) the leader is not allowed to be removed if there is no confidence movement against the existing leader.
There is a complaint against the political leaders of Nepalese in India saying they are residing out of the nation where as all their friends are inside prisons in Nepal. However Dharma Ratna could not succeed in his mission to patch up the conflict between party leaders. After this in Kathmandu all those involved decided not to support both these two leaders. After this DharmaRratna once again reached Calcutta and failed again to resolve the conflict between the party leaders and had to return back to Kathmandu. After this one new party by the name of Lok Tantric Dal was registered whose executive indirect power was poshak maharajdhiraj’s atirikta Subarna Samshere and Mahabir Samshere and official executive members were Surya Prasad Upadhya, Mahendra Bikram Shah and Prem Bahadur Kansakar. Koirala and Rregmi were both against this new political party. It is but natural that the corruption charges will automatically come while working under the sponsorship of riches. These people had decided go ahead working by implement the new reformed constitution draft prepared by Padma Samshere. Recommendation was also recorded with an agreement that the party central committee to be located inside Nepal only and branches will be handling party publicity and to be established out side the country.
Under this context a party with eleven working committee called Praja Panchyet was formed. The message on showing loyalty to Babu (Rana PM ) in order to transfer the political power to the son was advertised. Within a week 1500 members from Kathmandu, 400 from Patan seven hundred from Bhadgau joined this party. Decision was also made to stage a protest if Mohan Samshere implements the constitution drafted by Padma Samshre. Do you think Ranas can be easily fooled? A government notice was issued banning all the activities of political parties. The members of Praja Panchyet started saying : Ranas started licking the spit they themselves had spitted. The notice is against the constitution. When the three representatives of Praja Panchayet went to discuss this act of issuing sensitive notice which is against constitution. The army general replied saying that this POORJi is itself a constitution.
After that tension started in all three cities of the valley. Conducting programs and public speechdeliveries were banned. Among one such programs Heera Devi garlanded the speaker. Bisweswar was against this movement. Regmi’s group and Loktantra party were supporters of this program. If all three groups are ready to get united then the members of Panchayet Dal will also merge in this united group. A protest program was designed and the people ready to participate in the program was listed. Six seven hundred people came forward to get enrolled in this list. Tribhubar Singh was for the protest program, and people feared that he may back out because his party leader was Bisweswar who was against this program. That is why Dharma Ratna himself became ready to move ahead. The revolt started in all three
cities. Within one and half months three hundred revolters were put behind the bar. That time Bisweswar Prasad Koirala was underground. Due to his own ASABDHANILE he was arrested from Triratna Tuladhar’s residence.
Police force under Rana regime had stated behaving like animals then. They used to storm inside the residences of all the revolters and break things. The daughter and females of revolters were abused and attacked. Do you think they will allow revolters to stay at their residences? Nationalist revolter activists were running and hiding to save their lives. However Dharma Ratna was moving around disguised in peasant dress and advertising the movement. His wife Heera Devi was also actively taking part in organizing the satygraha. On the day she delivered her son she received warrant. During her delivery time she was under house arrest for five days surrounded by 200 police force. After seeing the face of the new born son on fifteenth day, handing over fifteen rupees on the hand of Heera Devi Dharma Ratna exited the valley with four people He reached Arapur station (champaran) near Inian bordering 4that at 2 am after deceiving the eyes of Ranas. In Kathmandu carrying fifteen days old new born infant son in Herra Devi’s lap she entered prison.
From this movement the citizens came to know the strengths of the people, they have also come to realize that until and unless revolting political parties gang up and fight together it would be very difficult to suppress the power of Ranas. Therefore they stated working towards the effort of uniting the parties. The eight members of representatives of all the parties had joint meeting at Patan. Elder brother Matrika Prasad Kiorala was against the movement of uniting the political forces. After that the representative of Loktantrik congress Surya Prasad Regmi talked about uniting Praja Panchayet. However the conflict over exercising the power within the parties became big issue. Dharma Ratna went to Banaras and talked with Regmi. Like his Ranga he had few people in his group. Behind Biswaswar he had support from Indian socialist parties. That time nationalist activist were facing grave situation. They had such grave situation managing hand to mouth that they started saying that staying inside Bhadragol jail would make their lives safer.
After receiving no fruitful result from the talk Dharma Ratna returned to Kathmandu. By then Heera Devi was already released from jail. The government had made her sign the legal document to report to the jail once in five days. After returning to Nepal Dharma Rratna spent one and half months teaching children in the northern boarder of Nepal. However hiding here and there like this didn’t help the movement. Good honest dedicated members of party were locked inside the jail. He wrote to those political prisoners inside jail and informed them saying “ the political party leaders are fighting among themselves. The parties are inactive and not functional however India has sympathy on us. To kill the motivation citizens to revolt will be harmful. Rana Shahi are ready to leave before they become unpopular and exposed. You all also should agree to minor terms and come out from prison. Communist china is claiming to take over Tibet. This will be good time to come out and perform”. Dharma Ratna had sent this letter to Tanka Prasad however he didn’t show this letter to any one.
People were ready to agree to any terms to get released from jail and many signed saying sorry (MAFI)??.
Although the movement was not very successful however the people started becoming bolder wiping out the fear of legal implications and fear of getting imprisoned. In October November 1949 Dharma Ratna came out and started moving around. However he was arrested and got imprisoned. The financial condition of Heerav Devi was very grave but she managed to send food to dharma ratna by borrowing food grains from others. After locking him for three months he was sent to Sigh Darwar. That time the revolution staged by Bisweswar was continuing. The arrested people were shouting the slogan “ Rana sahi murdabad” . When they were released electric spark thundered inside their heart. People collected in large numbers. Dharma Ratna was kept in Bhadra gole jail where he wrote “Sandeya Lisa” (Tibet ko jawaf) nayek khanda kabye. There he was imprisoned for three months and after spending nine months in Nakkhu jail he was released after the end of Rana regime.
After coming out he saw at places with four star congress flag every where. Where there used to be photographs of Ranas now there are flags of four stars competing. However there was raj of ledership splitting. After the release from jail Dharma Ratna immediately started delivering public speeches. Ganga Jamuna mantra mandal had already been formed. However people were dissatisfied with the behavior of congress ministers. Some people went and reported the poor condition of Dharma Ratna’s house hold affairs king and he sent some help to his wife. Youth koirala was adhkar rukta. He used to roam around in thathat Regmi’s image was tarnished as kripa patra by Mohan Samshere. People wouldn’t even permit him to speak also. With great courage Dharma Ratna gave him opportunity to take the space of sava pati and to speak. During day time aam sava of rastriya congress took place in Sano Tundikhel, no one objected to the speech of Regmi. There used to be up roar clapping after each byakhyan of Dharma Ratna. Today the citizens saw the magic of bani chamatkar. Every where people started talking about popularity of Dharma Ratna. In fact there was availability of other speakers in Kathmandu who could bring magical touch in popularity. All political parties started making him speaker of the party and wished that he would agree to become the member of their parties. However he had already become very popular by his own name. People had become frustrated with the functioning of political parties and he didn’t want to blend with them.
In 1951 Jawaharal Nehru had arrived. All political parties were competing to meet him. However the people had become frustrated and unsatisfied with the government due to lack of resources from which any one could exploit and take advantage. The truth was because of relation with Delhi government expenditure had increased many folded and people were complaining. Earlier Ranas used to do that now same thing nokarshahis started doing. Every where there was raj of bhai-bhatija-bhanjas and corrupt government akhanda. Communist planned to show black flag to Nehru. Dharma Ratna had close relationship with Kisan Sangh. They also wanted to show black flag to Nehru. King called Dharma Ratna and told him that it is not right to behave like that in front of national guest. Dharma Ratna made the sangha to decide not to show black flag however in the night the decision was reverted. Black flag was shown. One side Chiniya Kaji died because bullet from government side. On the other hand it became very difficult for Ranas to continue in Ganga Jamuna congress mantri mandal. Dharma Ratna went and met Mohan Samsher and told him” if you and other Ranas want respect for the post and maryada all the wealth of Ranas are in foreign banks should be brought into country and invest inside in different areas. From that there will be speeding up of industrial development and public will have better image and older tarnished images will improve. Mohan Samshere was getting compelled desh bata nirbashit..he listened to Dharma Ratna with deep interest and said” the advice is good will ask others and will bring back answer after a week”. However the savings in foreign banks was secure place for them which runs into more than 50 crores the looted property why would they want to bring in Nepal!!
Ganga Jamuna mantrimandal dissolved. Matrika Prasad Koirala took charge of PM post. All minsters
sides with congress. That time only king requested Dharma Ratna to become deputy minster in the cabinet. He became ex minster after nine months when Matrika led ministry got dissolved.
Dharma Ratna initially was uneducated he had suffered from child hood. His community called Udas newar belong to Buddha Baniya. Yeti bindha pratikul situation how he turned out to be secure high cultured person by moving from one difficult situation to another this is readable from his life history.
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Translated by (Hindi to English draft version)